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Darwin was stunned when he received a letter from A. R. Wallace describing the theory of natural selection but others had come up with similar theories before. When Darwin published the Origin in 1859 a man named Patrick Matthew wrote a letter to the Gardeners Chronicle claiming he had come up the principle of natural selection before Darwin. And indeed he had. Matthew was a Scottish landowner and fruit farmer and had published On Naval Timber and Aboriculture in 1831. It was a book about cultivating trees for shipbuilding. In an appendix to the work Matthew clearly describes the basic principles of natural selection. Darwin immediately wrote to the Gardeners Chronicle himself recognizing Matthews claim I freely acknowledge that Mr. Matthew has anticipated by many years the explanation which I have offered of the origin of species under the name of natural selection. I think that no one will feel surprised that neither I nor apparently any other naturalist had heard of Mr. Matthews views considering how briefly they are given and that they appeared in the appendix to a work on Naval Timber and Arboriculture. I can do no more than offer my apologies to Mr. Matthew for my entire ignorance of his publication. If another edition of my work is called for I will insert a notice to the foregoing effect. Which he did. But Matthew too had been anticipated. In 1818 a work by William Charles Wells was published posthumously Wells died the year before entitled Two Essays One Upon Single Vision with Two Eyes the other On Dew. Incredibly Wells had also described natural selection in an appendix. Darwins grandfather Erasmus Darwin discussed the idea of evolution in several works-most famously in Zoonomia published in 1794but he did not describe the mechanism of natural selection. But another work appeared in 1794 that did by none other than James Who Came up With Natural Selection First 30