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In 1872 came The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals another important book in which Darwin showed that humans and animals expressed similar emotions in similar ways pointing to common descent in contrast to Charles Bell who claimed in his 1824 work Essays on The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression that humans had special facial muscles to express uniquely human emotions. Expressions was also one of the first books to include photographs. It featured seven heliotype plates. Darwin wrote five more books between 1875 and 1881 working almost up to his death. Darwin on Religion Much has been written about the reception of Darwins theory in his lifetime and after less about what Darwin thought himself. Generally Darwin tended to think of science and religion as two separate and distinct areas of inquiry. In 1866 he wrote to Mary Boole the wife of John Boole the mathematician and she herself a mathematician I am grieved that my views should incidentally have caused trouble to your mind but I thank you for your judgment honour you for it that theology science should each run its own course that in the present case I am not responsible if their meeting point should still be far off. Separate and distinct but not unconnected. His scientific worldview took precedence. He wrote to N.A. Mengden in 1879 Science has nothing to do with Christ except in so far as the habit of scientific research makes a man cautious in admitting evidence. This was the crux of Darwins skepticismby the end of the voyage having seen so much evidence firsthand he could no longer accept anything on faith. In his autobiography he wrote The old argument of design in nature as given by Paley which formerly seemed to me as conclusive fails now that the law of natural selection has been discovered. We can no longer argue that for instance the beautiful hinge of a bivalve shell must have been made by an intelligent being like the hinge of a door by man. There seems to be no more design in the variability of organic beings and in the action of natural selection than in the course which the wind blows. Everything in nature is the result of fixed laws. But not believing in established religion himself did not lead him to speak out against itpartly because he didnt think doing so would make any difference and partly because he did not want to offend his wife. Darwin said as much when he wrote to Edward Aveling in 1880 I am a strong advocate for free thought on all subjects yet it appears to me whether rightly or wrongly that direct arguments against Christianity theism produce hardly any effect on the public freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of mens minds which follows from the advance of science. It has therefore been always my object to avoid writing on religion I have confined myself to science. I may however have been unduly biased by the pain which it would give some members of my family if I aided in any way direct attacks on religion. Perhaps our deepest insight comes from a letter he wrote to John Fordyce in 1879 In my most extreme fluctuations I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. He added I think that generally and more and more as I grow older but not always that an Agnostic would be a more correct description of my state of mind. 38